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In 1895 in Diyarbakır Kurdish and Turkish militia began attacking Christians, plundering Assyrian villages.
In 1915 Kurds and Turks plundered villages, about 7000 Assyrians were killed.
Beginning in August 1933 Iraqi soldiers and Kurdish militia killed thousands of Assyrias in Simele (Iraq).
The massacre had a big influence on Raphael Lemkin, the jurist who coined the word "genocide.
According to Cambon, the Porte refused reforms and persisted in "maintaining a veritable regime of terror, arrests, assasinations and rape.".
In 1932 Iraqi forces commanded by Kurdish general Bakr Sidki killed 600 Assyrians at Simel, near Mosul.
The Assyrians formulated the influential Syriac literature and Syriac script in the fifth century BC IN Athura (Achaemenid Assyria), and began to gradually convert from Mesopotamian Religion to Christianity from the first to fourth centuries AD, with the Assyrian Church of the East and its much later offshoot, the Chaldean Catholic Church being founded in the region, as too to some extent was the Syriac Orthodox Church.
Assyrians in Iraq are those Assyrians still residing in the country of Iraq, and those in the Assyrian diaspora who are of Iraqi-Assyrian heritage.
The Assyrians suffered a series of severe religiously motivated massacres under Muslim Turco-Mongol rule in the 13th and 14th centuries AD, greatly reducing their numbers, and causing the ancient city of Assur to be finally abandoned after 4000 years of occupation.
The new arrival of Muslim Kurds went along with persecutionss of Assyrians.
At its height the Assyrians ruled a vast empire from their homeland in what is today northern Iraq, north east Syria and south east Turkey, an empire stretching from the Caucasus Mountains in the north to Egypt, Libya and the Arabian peninsula in the south, and from Cyprus and Antioch in the west to western Iran and the Caspian Sea in the east.
After the Assyrian empire fell between 612 and 599 BC, Assyria endured mostly as an occupied but named geo-political entity as; Athura, Achaemenid Assyria, Asuristan, Assyria, although during the Parthian Empire and early Sassanid Empire (c.160 BC – 260 AD) there was an Assyrian revival, and a number of independent Assyrian states arose in northern Iraq and north east Syria, including; Adiabene, Osroene, Beth Nuhadra, Beth Garmai, ancient Assur itself, and to some degree Hatra.
Kurdish tribes were plundering Armenian and other Christian villages and "took possession of land".